St. Paul's Cathedral and Shakespeare's Globe
By Aníbal, Charo and Jose Daniel: Listen to us:
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral is an anglican cathedral on Ludgate Hill. The present building dates from the 17th century.

The cathedral sits on the edge of London's oldest region, the City, which originated as a Roman trading post along the edge of the river Thames. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sites.
It's believed that the Romans started the first temple. But the Anglo-Saxons built the first St. Paul's Cathedral.
It burnt in the great fire of 1087, and the Normans rebuilt it after that. There was another terrible fire, The Great Fire of London in 1668 and Christopher Wren built it again.

Wren's St Paul's
Design and construction

The task of designing a replacement structure was officially assigned to Sir Christopher Wren in 1668. St. Paul's Wren through five general stages of desing.
Wren's Greek Cross Wren's warrant Wren's cathedral The clock tower on the
on design. design. as built. west end of the cathedral.

After the fire, the ruins of the building were still thought to be workable, but ultimately the entire structure was demolished in the early 1670s to start afresh. Wren’s second design, the first to be a completely new building, which was considered to be too radical by his critics
because it lacked the programme necessary to conduct mass. Wren’s third proposal for the new St. Paul’s used many of the same design concepts as his Greek cross design, though it had an extended nave. This design was embodied in his creation in 1673 of the "Great Model". The model, made of oak and plaster. Wren's fourth design, the Warrant design, sought to reconcile the Gothic, the predominant form of English churches, to a "better manner of architecture. The final built design differs largely in ornamentation with the official Warrant design. Wren received permission from the king to make "ornamental changes" to the submitted design, and Wren took great advantage of this. The cathedral was completed on 20 October 1708, Wren's 76th birthday. On Thursday, 2 December 1697, thirty-two years and three months after a spark from Farryner's bakery had caused the Great Fire of London, St Paul's Cathedral came into use: it proved to be well worth the wait.
The consensus was as with all such works: some loved it; some hated it; while most, once their curiosity was satisfied, didn't think about it one way or another.

Sir Christopher Wren Said, "I am going to dine with some men. If anyone calls,
Say I am designing St Paul's."

Structural engineering
The walls of the cathedral are particularly thick to avoid the need for large flying buttresses. The windows are set into deep recesses in the walls. The upper parts of the cathedral walls are reinforced with small flying buttresses, which were a relatively late design change to give extra strength. These are concealed behind a large curtain wall, which was added to keep the building's classical style intact. The large dome is composed of three layers. The inner and outer layers are catenary curves, but the structural integrity to support the heavy stone structure atop the dome is provided by a intermediary layer which is much steeper and more conical in shape.


**Shakespeare's Globe**


The original Globe

The original Globe Theatre was built in 1599 by the playing company, Lord Chamberlain's Men, to which Shakespeare belonged, and was destroyed by fire on June 29, 1613. The fire was set by a cannon accident during a production of Henry VIII. The Globe Theatre was rebuilt by June 1614 (the exact opening date is not known). It was officially closed by order of the dominant Puritan religious faction in 1642 and demolished in 1644.

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, which officially opened in 1997, is a reconstruction of The Globe Theatre, an Elizabethan playhouse in the London Borough of Southwark, on the south bank of the River Thames. It is approximately 230 metres (750 ft) from the site of the original theatre. Jack Shepherd's lively 'Prologue Production' of The Two Gentlemen of Verona starring Mark Rylance as Proteus, opened the Globe to the theatregoing public in August 1996, a year before the formal opening Gala.

In 1970 American actor and director Sam Wanamaker, founded the Shakespeare Globe Trust, and International Shakespeare Globe Centre with the objective of building a faithful recreation of Shakespeare’s Globe close to its original Bankside, Southwark location. While
many had said that the Globe reconstruction was impossible to achieve, he persevered for over twenty years, and eventually a new Globe theatre was built according to a design based on the research of historical advisor John Orrell. The rest of the design team comprised Theo Crosby of Pentagram as the architect, Buro Happold as structural and services engineers and Boyden & Co as quantity surveyors. The construction was undertaken by McCurdy & Co. It opened in 1997 under the name "Shakespeare's Globe Theatre" and now stages plays every summer (May to October).

The reconstruction was carefully researched so that the new building would be as faithful a replica as possible. This was aided by the discovery of the original Globe Theatre as final plans were being made of the site. Modernizations include the addition of lights (plays in Shakespeare's time were held during the day), sprinklers on the roof to protect against fire, and the fact that the theatre is partly joined onto a modern lobby, visitors centre and additional backstage support areas. Seating capacity is 1,380, with a further 500 "groundlings" standing (and spectators must stand, as no sitting is allowed) in the pit, an audience about half the size of that in Shakespeare's time.

These are some photographs of Shakespeare's Globe